Sky Awareness Week on April, 2025: What happened to the hole in the sky?

Sky Awareness Week 2025. Sky Awareness week - April 20-26 Sky Awareness week - April 20-26. 1; 3. Newer Older. Wow, look at that sky!

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What happened to the hole in the sky?

Hole in the Ozone Layer: Contrary to the environmentalists' claims, there is no permanent hole in the ozone layer and no ozone shortage. Ozone is constantly created and destroyed. The interaction of ultraviolet radiation with oxygen molecules is what produces ozone. In the stratosphere, 10 to 40 kilometers above the earth's surface, several tons of ozone are produced every second.

The amount of ozone present at any one time is influenced by many factors. For example, the amount of ultraviolet radiation reaching the stratosphere (and ultimately producing ozone) depends upon latitude, solar cycle, and season. Concentrations of ozone may differ drastically from one day to the next, sometimes by as much as 50 percent, depending on the weather. Ozone holes are natural reactions to these ultraviolet light variations. Ozone levels can also be affected by the amount of volcanic matter in the stratosphere. Each volcanic eruption emits roughly a thousand times the amount of ozone�depleting chemicals than all the CFCs man has ever produced.

The ozone hole that appeared over Antarctica and caused all the panic is a natural and annual phenomena. The annual ozone hole was first measured in 1956�57, long before the ozone�destroying CFCs were in common use. The hole appears at the end of the dark, cold Antarctic winter, lasts about three to five weeks, and then disappears. There is no overall or permanent depletion of the ozone layer.

Has anyone noticed a shift in the energy since flight ban introduced over most of Europe few days

Has anyone noticed a shift in the energy since flight ban introduced over most of Europe few days ago?

I know what you mean. I posted a question last week about the peace and quiet I was experiencing because I live close to an airport. There was a definite change in the spirit of the place. An intense swell of natural sounds I was unable to hear before. Considering it is almost 100 years since the skies were that quiet, it is not surprising that we all sensed a change. I too somehow wanted it to remain that way. Maybe that moment of clarity just helped people like you and me realise that we yearn for more peaceful surroundings. Perhaps some of us may have been inspired to go and search for them.

What month did you notice the first snowfall in your home state?

What month did you notice the first snowfall in your home state?

its on freak September :

i have an article about that :



October’s poplars are flaming

torches lighting the way to winter.

~ Nova Bair

Page 8

National Weather Service

824 Brown Co 14 S

Aberdeen SD 57401

We’re on the Internet


National Weather Service Forecast Office

Aberdeen, South Dakota

October 2005


Winter Weather Preparedness/Awareness Weeks 1

Early Season Snowstorm Blasts Northern Plains 2

Ice Safety 3

New Climate Page 4

New Employees 5

Local COOP Observer Honored 6

NOAA Weather Radio Live Call-In Show 7

Wind Chill Chart 8


OCTOBER 24 – 28, 2005


NOVEMBER 7 - 11, 2005

Winter Weather Preparedness is not something

that “just happens”. It takes knowledge and planning.

Winter weather can be deadly.

Your life depends on your actions when a winter

storm strikes. Winter Storms can include blizzards, heavy

snow, heavy accumulations of ice and extreme wind

chills. These will make travel difficult to impossible, can

knock out power and phone service, close roads, cutting

you off from outside contact, and put your life at risk.

Living and working in winter weather presents

health hazards that everyone needs to be aware of. The

big threats are hypothermia and frostbite, but dehydration

and heart attack are also problems.

Hypothermia is a lowering of the core body temperature.

Frostbite is the freezing of exposed flesh. Both of

these can be prevented by wearing proper clothing and

avoiding over-exertion. To prevent dehydration drink

plenty of fluids. Working in cold and snow is very

strenuous. Shoveling snow is a major cause of heart attacks

in males over the age of 40.

Are you prepared to sit out a winter storm? Do

you have the necessary materials to survive on your own?

Make sure you have an alternative heat source for your

home and a generator. Operate the generator in a well

ventilated area to prevent carbon monoxide poisoning.

Stock enough foods and medicines to last for at least a

week, in case a winter storm makes it impossible to


If traveling, carry a winter survival kit in your

vehicle. This includes winter clothing for every person,

extra blankets, water, and food that requires no cooking.

If stranded, stay with the vehicle and wait to be rescued.

The National Weather Service has set up a Winter

Weather Awareness Page on the internet at This site contains general

preparedness information, as well as links to other agencies

such as the Red Cross and Federal Emergency Management

Agency. There are also links to specific winter

weather threats, and aids such as Wind Chill Charts, and

long lead time climatic outlooks.

Page 2

An early fall snow storm slammed into the Northern Plains the first week of October, bringing heavy

snow, high winds and much cooler temperatures to the region. The strong storm formed over the Rockies early

in the week, bringing new snowfall to the mountain ranges of Montana. This system then slid east bringing

quite a change from the temperatures in the mid 80s and 90s observed throughout the first few days of the

month. This was one of the earliest snow storms ever recorded across the Northern Plains. The National

Weather Service in Bismarck reported 10 to 15 inches of snow fell across western North Dakota, with a few

scattered 15 to 18 inch amounts. Western South Dakota also received heavy snowfall with the National

Weather Service in Rapid City indicating reports of 10 to 12 inches in Lawrence and Harding counties. Across

central and northeast South Dakota mostly rain fell with this storm system beginning Tuesday afternoon October

4th and ending Wednesday October 5th. Two snowfall reports came in from north central South Dakota

with 5 inches of snow reported near Morristown, and 3 inches falling near Isabel. The storm caused numerous

power outages throughout western South Dakota, western and central North Dakota, Eastern Montana, and

Eastern Wyoming. Many motorists were stranded on highways across North Dakota, with many schools closed

for the day as well.

Although it seems a bit premature for a snowstorm of this magnitude, this isn’t the earliest that snow

has ever fallen in the state of South Dakota. At both Aberdeen and Watertown measurable snow has fallen as

early as September 21st, when 0.2 inches of snow fell on that date in 1995 at both sites. Pierre’s earliest snowfall

came on October 1st, 1999 when 3.9 inches of snow fell on the state capital. Timber Lake also saw measurable

snowfall on the 1st day of October in 1999 when 5 inches of snow covered the ground. Wheaton, MN recorded

their earliest measurable snowfall of 1 inch on October 13th, 1997.

October is no stranger to snowfall with most sites across central, north central, and northeast South Dakota

averaging around a half an inch to one inch of snowfall throughout the month. Wheaton in west central

Minnesota averages just less than one half inch of snowfall during the month of October. In contrast, the latest

1st measurable snowfall of the season in Aberdeen occurred on January 8th, 1945 when the city received 0.4” of

snow. Aberdeen also went through a 55 day precipitation lull from September 21st to November 17th, 1952

making this time period the longest period without measurable precipitation in history.

The cold temperatures associated with this system are also well below average for this part of October.

The average maximum temperature in Aberdeen and Watertown for the first week of October is right around

65°F. In Pierre, that number is a slightly warmer at 68°F. The highs reported across the region Wednesday and

Thursday of last week were only in the upper 30s to around 50. That puts the maximum temperatures almost

15 to 20 degrees colder than the seasonal average for this time of year. As for minimum temperatures the average

for Pierre, Watertown, and Aberdeen is right around 39°F or 40°F for the first week in October. Minimum

temperatures this past Wednesday night were only about 5 to 10 degrees colder than the average for this time

of year, as most sites only dropped into the lower to mid 30s. However minimum temperatures the next few

days dropped into the 20s across the area, showing a 15 to 20 degree drop from the seasonal average.

Early Season Snowstorm Blasts Northern Plains

by Mindy Albrecht

Page 7

October 30th

Don’t forget to

turn your

clocks back one

hour at

2:00 am.

NOAA Weather Radio

Live Call-in Show

October 25th

7:00 pm

Tune in to your local NOAA

Weather Radio Frequency for

your chance to call in questions

to members of the Aberdeen

National Weather Service staff.

Also listen for information on

special guests.

Did you see us at the

Gypsy Days Parade?

The National Weather Service

float at the parade in Aberdeen.

October 1st, 2005

Page 6

from L-R Hydro-meteorological Technician Ken Gillespie, Data Acquisition Program Manager

Tim Kearns, Stoll Award Honoree Evelyn Quade and new COOP observer Dan Chaloupka.

Local Coop Observer Honored

Evelyn Quade of Wilmot SD, 2003 winner of the prestigious John Campanius Holm Award, was presented

with the Edward H. Stoll Award, marking her 50th year and final day as a volunteer Cooperative Weather Observer.

After 50 years of enduring wintertime blizzards and the heat and torrential rains of summer, Evelyn

has decided to retire and pass the observing duties onto her neighbor, Dan Chaloupka.

The Stoll award was established in honor of Edward Stoll who served as a cooperative weather observer without

interruption for 76 years (1905 - 1981).

So, as Dan completes his first day as the new Weather Observer for Wilmot SD, we're sad to be saying goodbye

to Evelyn, a long time, dedicated friend, but happy to be welcoming Dan who has only 49 years and 364

days left to reach the remarkable feat set by Evelyn Quade.

Page 3


When significant or unusual weather events occur, give us a

call! We’re always happy to hear from the public, especially if you’re

calling to report freezing rain or snow accumulations of 2" or more. Don’t

wait until the next us when it’s happening.

Ice Safety

Winter is still a time for having fun on the water. During the winter, lots of people turn in their boats for a

snowmobile and take to icy lakes to enjoy the fishing. While a lot of fun, there are dangers involved with

these activities. Ice on a lake will not be a uniform thickness, or be able to bear the same amount of weight as

another section of ice of the same thickness. There are many factors involved: age, thickness, temperature or

whether or not the ice is covered with snow. Strength is based on all these factors – plus the depth of water under

the ice, size of the water body, water chemistry and currents, the distribution of the load on the ice, and local

climatic conditions.

Recommended minimum ice thickness - These thicknesses are merely guidelines for new, clear, solid ice.

Many factors other than thickness can cause ice to be unsafe.

4" of new clear ice is the minimum thickness for travel on foot

5" is the minimum for snowmobiles and small ATVs

8"- 12" for cars or small trucks

Check for known thin ice areas with a local resort or bait shop. You can test the thickness yourself using

an ice chisel, ice auger or even a cordless drill with a long bit.

Refrain from driving on ice whenever possible. If you must drive a vehicle, be prepared to leave it in a

hurry: keep windows down, unbuckle your seat belt and have a simple emergency plan of action you have discussed

with your passengers.

Stay away from alcoholic beverages. Any amount of alcohol is enough to cause a careless error in judgment

that could cost you your life. Contrary to common belief, alcohol actually makes you colder rather than warming

you up.

Don't "overdrive" your snowmobile's headlight. At even 30 miles per hour, it can take a much longer distance

to stop on ice than your headlight shines. Many fatal snowmobile through-the-ice accidents occur because

the machine was traveling too fast for the operator to stop when the headlamp illuminated the hole in the


Wear a life vest under your winter gear. Or wear one of the new flotation snowmobile suits. And it's a good

idea to carry a pair of ice picks that may be home made or purchased from most well stocked sporting goods

stores that cater to winter anglers. It's amazing how difficult it can be to pull yourself back onto the surface of

unbroken but wet and slippery ice while wearing a snowmobile suit weighted down with 60 lbs of water. The

ice picks really help to pull yourself back onto solid ice. CAUTION: Do NOT wear a flotation device when

traveling across the ice in an enclosed vehicle! It will make it harder to get out of the vehicle if you go through

the ice.

Have fun on the ice – but be safe.

Information courtesy of SD Game, Fish & Parks and MN Dept. of Natural Resources

Page 4

New Climate Page

by Dan Mohr

The National Weather Service recently unveiled the new climate page for all its homepages across the country. The Aberdeen

National Weather Service‘s climate page contains a wealth of information for Aberdeen along with several other

locations across central and northeast South Dakota. When visiting our homepage, just click on the climate tab on top

and see for yourself. Note: new products and updates will be ongoing with the climate page.

On our office climate page, you will notice the many different areas you can visit including, climate home, observed

weather, climate prediction, climate resources, local data/records, and astronomical information. In the observed weather

section, you can follow through a couple steps to retrieve any one of the following products for selected locations: the

daily climate summary, the monthly climate summary, the preliminary climate data (updated daily), record event reports

(temperature or precipitation), daily regional and statewide high and lows and precipitation. The process of retrieving a

product is very simple. Choose a product type, location, timeframe, and then the click to view tab. When choosing a

product, a detailed product description is located at the bottom of the page informing you of what the product contains,

when it is issued, how far back you retrieve past products, etc.

Climate prediction is of great interest to many customers, especially in the extended and long range outlooks. Under the

climate prediction tab, you will find the latest 6 to 10 day outlooks, 8 to 14 day outlooks, and 30 and 90 day outlooks for

the continental United States. Also, information on climate variability factors such as El Nino and La Nina can be easily

accessed from this location. A couple very useful products to note on this page are the U.S. Hazards Assessment and the

U.S. Drought Assessment maps. The Hazards Assessment is intended to provide emergency managers, planners, forecasters,

and the public advance notice of potential hazards related to climate, weather, and hydrological events.

On each Thursday, CPC (Climate Prediction Center), together with the United States Department of Agriculture, the National

Drought Mitigation Center in Lincoln, Nebraska, and NOAA's National Climatic Data Center, issues a weekly

drought assessment called the United States Drought Monitor. The Monitor provides a consolidated depiction of national

drought conditions based on a combination of drought indicators and field reports. The CPC issues the Seasonal United

States Drought Outlook each month in conjunction with the Thursday release of the long-lead temperature and precipitation

outlooks near the middle of the month. The Drought Outlooks show areas where drought is expected to develop,

persist, worsen, or improve over the next several months.

Under the Climate Resources tab, you will find many other different places you can visit to see climate information. You

can view climate information outside the local area such as the high and low temperatures for the past 24 hours for the

entire country. You can also visit the state and regional climate offices across the country. One very important location

for all historical data and if you need certified data is the National Climatic Data Center in Ashville, North Carolina.

The Local/Data records tab contains information on normals for five locations across central and northeast South Dakota

and extremes for Aberdeen compared to South Dakota. The weather extremes for other locations will be added in the


Finally, on the climate page you will find astronomical data for sunrise/sunset, moonrise/moonset along with the phases

of the moon for anywhere in the United States.

The National Weather Service Climate pages will continue to be improved as time goes along with new products being

added. In the not so distant future, a local downscaled product will be produced for seven locations across our area. The

downscaled product is produced from the Climate Prediction Center’s long range outlooks giving you the probabilities of

above, near, or below normal temperatures at a specific location for a three-month period. Also, a composite analysis

product of historical impacts of El Nino/La Nina on the area will be produced and posted on the climate page sometime

in late 2006 or early 2007.

Page 5

New Employees

Cory Behnke

Scott Doering

I grew up in Moline, Illinois, which rests on the banks

of the Mississippi River. In my younger years, I never paid

much attention to the weather, besides a few glances at

the clouds. My first curiosity in weather did not occur until

1993, when massive flooding occurred on the Mississippi

River due to extensive weeks of rainfall. At the time, the

flood crest was the fifth highest on record.

I continued my enjoyment in weather by taking an

introduction to meteorology class at the local community

college. I was unsure of a career track at that time and

thought meteorology seemed pretty easy. Little did I realize

I needed so many math classes. Upon graduating

from community college, I enrolled at Western Illinois University

with a major in Meteorology and a minor in Geology.

While there, I took part in many honor clubs and was

eventually elected president to one called Sigma Gamma

Epsilon. During my senior year, I received a student internship

with the National Weather Service in Davenport,

Iowa. My duties in Davenport consisted of launching

weather balloons and data collection, much like here in


My graduation day was one that I will never forget. I

missed my own graduation to work a severe weather

event at the Davenport office. On that day, we had several

tornadoes touchdown with one reaching an F2 and

another reaching F3 status. I knew from that day on I

wanted to work for the National Weather Service. I spent

the next two years volunteering at the Davenport office

gaining experience. I was highly involved in organizing

and presenting spotter training classes. I also helped out

on several severe weather events and even conducted a

damage survey of an F3 tornado that went through the

towns of Granville and Utica, Illinois.

The first job I was offered was teaching Introduction

to Meteorology, the same class I took years earlier. However,

four weeks before the semester was to start, and

the day before my birthday, I was offered a job as a Meteorologist

Intern with the National Weather Service in

Aberdeen. I politely backed out of the teaching position,

and moved to Aberdeen and could not be happier.

I was born and raised in the small northeastern

Wisconsin town of Peshtigo (site of the Great Peshtigo

Fire of 1871). I am a spring 2003 graduate of the

University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee with a Bachelor

of Science degree in Atmospheric Sciences. I also

fulfilled the requirements for a Master of Science

degree in Mathematics (Atmospheric Sciences option)

from the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

in the spring of 2005. My thesis was titled “Synoptic

and Local Controls of the Lake Michigan Pneumonia


A few weather interests I have are forecasting at

the synoptic and mesoscale levels, as well as researching

problematic forecasting issues.

Interests other than professional include hunting,

fishing, golfing, and learning to play guitar. My wife

Julie and I are newlyweds, and I am extremely excited

to start my new career as a Meteorologist Intern

in the always active northern Plains

Also on this date Tuesday, April 1, 2025...