Disarmament Week on October, 2022: why is science important for international security and disarmament?
Disarmament Week 2022. Disarmament Week The annual observance of Disarmament Week, which begins on the anniversary
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It's not the long and complicated gobbletygok that the prior poster put up. Science allowed for the development of spy satilites, and other "overhead imagery technology".
Simply put, the Americans did not trust the Soviets...and they had good reason not to trust them. The Soviets did not trust the Americans, and they had their reasons for not trusting us.
In an enviornmnet where neither side can trust the other, you can't have genuine security or disarmament. The stakes are too high, and the incentive to cheat is to great. You MUST take precautions to protect yourself, and those precautions are often seen as a threat by the other side.
The prime example of that is what happened in August 1914, when WW I started. IT takes several weeks for a country to call up it's reserve forces, get the troops ready and equipped to fight, etc. (it is called "mobilization"). None of the major nations wanted war in1914, but all of them HAD to mobilize and prepare for war, because they were afraid of what would happen if their neighbor attacked them, and they didn't have their Army ready in time.
However every nation saw their neighbor mobilizing and they took that as a threat...even if it was a purely defensive move on the part of their neighbor. So once Austria mobilized, Russia had to mobilize (to protect themselves from Austiria)...and when Russia mobilized that scared Germany so THEY mobilized, which scared France so THEY mobilized, etc. etc. etc. Even though everyone was talking peace, everyone also saw that everyone else was getting ready for war, and they had to be ready to defend themselves against a suprise attack....and it all spun down from there.
In the Cold War spy satilites meant that each side could look at the other's army, could track each others army, could see what the other side was doing. This made something like Pearl Harbor a lot less likely...because if one side was getting ready to attack the other the spy sats would pick up the preparations for the attack ...so it wouldn't be a suprise. Both sides knew this. It took a lot of the fear out of the equation.
Both sides could count each others missiles, tanks, submarines, etc.. This meant that each had a way of verifying that any treaties were being obeyed, and the two sides didn't have to trust each other, which is good because they didn't. (As Reagan said "Trust but verify"... by which he meant "sure you can make a deal with the Soviets, but do your own independent check to make sure that the Soviets are keeping the deal".)
Perhaps the best example is that science made it possible for Kennedy to KNOW that the Russians had kept their end of the bargan after the Cuban Missile Crisis and had pulled their missiles out of Cuba. He could get U-2 photos of the missile sites and see that the missiles were gone.
So that is how science made security and disarmament possible....
As a side note, the development of communications technology, such as the "hotline" between Washington and Moscow so that the two sides could talk and communicate better should not be ignored. IT too helped greatly.
Outline for Course Paper (Week Two).?
Firstly your teacher tells you what she wants by accident or sloth: "Prepare the results of your analysis of overcriminalization in a 900-1,200 word paper." (It dosen't sound like she's looking for undercriminalizaion) You know which thesis she wants. You get a better grade if your paper reflects the teachers viewpoint. (School politics 101)
To do this assignment effectivly you have to work backwards. It's a Google job. You need to get your facts and cites and use them to write your outline. As you do your searches you will find articles that will help you in ways that were not forseeable. I was looking for an article on Prisons and Budgets; I got one that talked about how building prisons was interfering with building schools and black people going to prison. There's an excerpt and a cite below.
I'll try a few things with CA where I live and make an outline and find facts to fill it, but you can work in either direction.
State of CA: Largest budget item Prison construction. (I know this but I need to substantiate it)
I google the article below:
"Since the 1980's, California's government expenditures have been increasingly driven by another engine - the prison system. Once a sleepy little department with little political clout, the California Department of Corrections has mushroomed into a statewide behemoth, whose expenditure increases have outpaced other General Fund expenditures three-fold. The ten-fold increase in the prison budget since 1980 prompted the former Chair of the Joint Committee on Prison Construction and Operations, Senator Robert Presley, to dub the California Department of Corrections "California's Pentagon."
Note: the name of the article is on he next line. It's perfect for what you want to do.
"From Classrooms to Cell Blocks: How Prison Building Affects Higher Education and African American Enrollment in California"
Most powerful labor union: Prision Gaurds.
Here's what googling "California Prison Gaurds" will get you!
article title: "The California Prison Guards' Union
A Potent Political Interest Group
by Dan Pens, March 1995
from a book
The Celling of America
edited by Daniel Burton-Rose
with editors of Prison Legal News
Dan Pens and Paul Wright
Common Courage Press, 1998" It's a little old but, it's perfect if you read the article. It talks about how the Prison Gaurds Union has Grown in Power
"In 1980 there were 22,500 prisoners in California. The average salary for California prison guards was $14,400 a year. The state budget for corrections was $300 million per year. In the past, California schools and universities were the envy of the world. The state's economy was strong, bolstered by huge numbers of defense jobs. CCPOA was a politically minuscule organization vying for attention among the giants of fat defense contractors.
By 1996 there were more than l40,000 prisoners in California. The average salary for California prison guards is $44,000 per year (well over $50,000 with benefits)-$ l 0,000 more than the average teacher's salary. Prison guards require only a high school education and a six week training course. Most teaching jobs require at least an undergraduate degree in education. In 1993 California spent a greater portion of its state budget on prisons than it did for education for the first time (compared to as recently as fiscal year 1983/84 when California spent 3.9 percent of its budget on its prison system, and 10 percent on higher education). The state corrections budget in 1994 was $3 billion. The demise of the Cold War meant the decline of defense jobs. According to the National Commission for Economic Conversion and Disarmament, a non-profit Washington D.C. group, there has been a decline of over 750,000 defense related jobs in the last five years alone-most of them in California. But as the military-industrial complex is waning in California, the prison-industrial complex is mushrooming. In this way California's wealth now comes not only from perpetuating the misery of millions of people around the world, but also from the rigidly enforced misery of thousands of its own citizens. Between 1984 and 1994 California added a whopping 25,900 prison employees, substantially more than were added to all other state departments combined (16,000). By one estimate, hiring for prisons has accounted for 45 percent of the growth in all California jobs in that ten year period.
The CCPOA's rise to political power can be traced to 1980, when Don Novey became the group's president. Novey is the son of a prison guard. He graduated from American River College and served in Army Intelligence in the late '60s. Before becoming the head of the union, he worked as a prison guard in Folsom.
Prior to Novey's ascendancy, the union had been a pitifully weak organization, with a membership divided between the California State Employees' Association and the California Correctional Officers' Association. In all it had only about 5,600 members. But when Novey took over its leadership, the union combined Youth Authority supervisors and parole officers with prison guards, and with the acceleration of prison building, the CCPOA membership has swelled to 23,000 members.
Recognizing not only the political importance of lobbying but the power of public relations, Novey began spending about half a million dollars on PR and on honing a public image for himself: that of the self-depreciating, fedora-wearing, blue collar labor leader. But it is in the arena of political lobbying, rather than PR, that Novey has shown true genius.
The CCPOA collects nearly $8 million a year in dues, and it expends twice as much in political contributions as the California Teachers Association, although it is only one-tenth the size. The union is now second in the state only to the California Medical Association in political contributions. But in reality it is the most powerful and influential lobbying group in the state, as there are no vested interests against spending more on prisons. Don Novey has shaped the CCPOA into a potent political force. Candidates for governor have genuflected at Novey's feet in hopes of gaining the endorsement and deep pocket largess of his association, and have submitted to grilling by the union leadership to see if they were worthy. Jack Meola, the CCPOA's executive vice president, says their questioning of candidates is intense. "Our primary goal is to protect the public," he says in his smooth PR banter to the press, "to keep thugs off the street and in jail where they belong." To fail the test, Novey maintains, could mean the difference between victory and defeat. Diane Feinstein found that out in 1990 when Novey's union gave almost $1 million to enthrone law enforcement's friend, Pete Wilson, in the California State House.
State Law: Marijuana legal as medicine
Federal Law: Marijauna illegal
Sorry I don't have time to do your whole paper, but I hope my screed above gives you ideas on how to use search engines to get the facts or find out if the facts don't exist to substantiate a thesis.
Also, look into the cost of drug treatment versus incarcerating drug users. California passed a law requiring that people arrested for possesion be sentenced to treatment and it has saved a fortune in tax revenues with better results that imprisonment.
There is also a Federal Law being considered about cutting federal sentences for cocaine offenders already in jail.
Good luck with your asssignment.
Exactly why U.S. Does not intend to negotiate for the nuclear disarmament of Israel?
because israel, along with india and pakistan are not members of the Nuclear Non Proliferation Treaty and therefore cannot violate a treaty they are not a part of. iran and north korea both signed and ratified the NPT and got caught violating it, which under article 2 it is illegal to research, possess, develop, acquire, pursue, receive, or transfer nuclear weapons for any non nuclear power that did not have nuclear weapons before jan 1967 in accordance with article 9 section 3
Nuclear Non Proliferation Treaty
this treaty was designed to stop the flow of nuclear weapons while still allowing for the peaceful transfer of nuclear power technology (nuclear reactors)
countries that have signed and ratified the NPT
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Director General Yukiya Amano
The issue has been of international concern since the discovery in 2003 that Iran had concealed its nuclear activities for 18 years in breach of its obligations under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT)
“The agency is increasingly concerned about the possible existence in Iran of past or current undisclosed nuclear related activities involving military related organizations, including activities related to the development of a nuclear payload for a missile, about which the agency continues to receive new information,” Mr. Amano said.
He noted that since the last Board meeting, Iran has installed centrifuges in Fordow with the stated objective of producing uranium enriched up to 20 per cent in further contravention of Security Council and Board of Governors resolutions.
The head of the United Nations International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) said today there is credible information that Iran is developing a nuclear weapon and called on the country to agree to a visit by a high-level team to clarify the nature of its nuclear programme
Earlier this week, IAEA inspectors reported that Iran had broken Agency seals at the Natanz facility and two related storage and testing locations, Pars Trash and Farayand Technique. The seals also covered some process equipment at the Pilot Fuel Enrichment Plant at Natanz. Iran’s Safeguards Agreement under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) authorizes the IAEA to “apply its seals and other identifying and tamper-indicating devices” as needed. Iran suspended all uranium enrichment and reprocessing in 2004 in the so-called Paris agreement for talks with the EU-3 to resolve issues arising out of the disclosure that it had for almost two decades concealed its nuclear activities in breach of the NPT
The Vienna-based IAEA was informed late last month by Iran about the construction of a new enrichment plant. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon said last week that the facility violates Security Council resolutions because of the delay in its disclosure.