National Condom Month on February, 2018: black people, how do you feel about this?
February, 2018 is National Condom Month 2018. ASHA Blog National Condom Month 2013:
Black guys feel that way most of the time. Not only in Black History month, but also the remaining White History Months. So what's your point? A hint to decrease the Black population.
Besides Gardasil and condoms, are there any other medical ways to prevent HPV?
Neither Gardasil or condoms prevent an HPV infection.
Gardasil prevent two low risk HPV types 6 and 11 and two high risk HPV types.
15 high risk HPV types are linked to genital cancers.
The only way to prevent HPV is to refrain from any genital contact.
2.Can HPV infection be prevented?
The surest way to eliminate risk for genital HPV infection is to refrain from any genital contact with another individual.
For those who choose to be sexually active, a long-term, mutually monogamous relationship with an uninfected partner is the strategy most likely to prevent genital HPV infection. However, it is difficult to determine whether a partner who has been sexually active in the past is currently infected.
It is not known how much protection condoms provide against HPV infection, because areas not covered by a condom can be infected by the virus. Although the effect of condoms in preventing HPV infection is unknown, condom use has been associated with a lower rate of cervical cancer, an HPV-associated disease.
In 2006, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Gardasil®, a vaccine that is highly effective in preventing persistent infection with HPV types 16 and 18, two "high-risk" HPVs that cause most (70 percent) cervical cancers, and types 6 and 11, which cause virtually all (90 percent) genital warts (3).
3.What preventive HPV vaccines are available?
The Gardasil vaccine, which is produced by Merck & Co., Inc. (Merck), is called a quadrivalent vaccine because it protects against four HPV types: 6, 11, 16, and 18. Gardasil is given through a series of three injections into muscle tissue over a 6-month period.
Another promising vaccine, Cervarix™, is produced and is being tested by GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), but is not yet approved by the FDA. This vaccine is called a bivalent vaccine because it targets two HPV types: 16 and 18. This vaccine is also given in three doses over a 6-month period. Early findings have shown that Cervarix also protects against persistent infection with HPV 16 and 18.
Both Gardasil and Cervarix are based on technology developed in part by National Cancer Institute (NCI) scientists. NCI, a part of the National Institutes of Health, licensed the technology to two pharmaceutical companies—Merck and GSK—to develop HPV vaccines for widespread distribution.
Neither of these HPV vaccines has been proven to provide complete protection against persistent infection with other HPV types, some of which cause cervical cancer. Therefore, about 30 percent of cervical cancers and 10 percent of genital warts will not be prevented by these vaccines. In addition, the vaccines do not prevent other sexually transmitted diseases, nor do they treat HPV infection or cervical cancer.
Because the vaccines will not protect against all infections that cause cervical cancer, it is important for vaccinated women to continue to undergo cervical cancer screening as is recommended for women who have not been vaccinated.
Genital HPV cannot be entirely prevented by condom use.
Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI). The virus infects the skin and mucous membranes. There are more than 40 HPV types that can infect the genital areas of men and women, including the skin of the penis, vulva (area outside the vagina), and anus, and the linings of the vagina, cervix, and rectum. You cannot see HPV. Most people who become infected with HPV do not even know they have
What is the condom use at last high-risk sex in Tamilnadu?
THE SPERM VS. THE AIDS VIRUS
A paper in the February 1992 issue of Applied and Environmental Microbiology reports that filtration techniques show the HIV-1 virus to be 0.1 micron (4 millionths of an inch) in diameter. It is three times smaller than the herpes virus, 60 times smaller than the syphilis
spirochete, and 50 to 450 times smaller than sperm. (8)
THE FLAWED CONDOM
Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) researchers, using powerful electron microscopes, have found that new latex, from which
condoms are fabricated, contains "maximum inherent flaw[s]" (that is, holes) 70 microns in diameter. (9)
These holes are 700 times larger than the HIV-1 virus. There are pores in latex, and some of the pores are large enough to pass sperm-sized particles. Carey, et al., observed leakage of HIV-sized particles through 33%+ of the latex condoms tested. In addition, as Gordon points out in his review, the testing procedures for condoms are less than desirable. United States condom manufacturers are allowed 0.4% leaky condoms (AQL). Gordon states, "The fluctuations in sampling permits many batches not meeting AQL to be sold." In the United
States, 12% of domestic and 21% of imported batches of condoms have failed to meet the 0.4% AQL. (10)
CONDOMS FAIL TESTING
In a 1988 study sponsored by the National Institutes of Health, Bruce Voeller of the Mariposa Foundation in Topanga, California, a non-profit organization dedicated to preventing the spread of sexually transmitted diseases, ranked 31 brands of latex condoms according to how well they met the U.S. and international quality assurance standards designed to ensure that condoms provide an effective
barrier against human sperm.
"Many of the condoms now on the market would not get FDA approval if they were required to meet today’s standards," says
Voeller. Although all condoms sold in the U.S.are supposed to pass quality assurance tests, those marketed before 1976 need not meet the more stringent requirements necessary to win FDA marketing approval. (11)
Dr. Collart reports that "Gotszche and Hording in their study of in vivo [real life] condom failure rates concluded ‘Condoms to
prevent HIV transmission do not imply truly safe sex.’ In addition Steiner, et al., observed newer lots of condoms had actual breakage rates of 3.5-8.8%, while actual breakage rates for older lots ranged from 9.8-18.6%. In a study conducted by Ahmed, et al., 29%-42% of those who had used condoms experienced at least one breakage. In a survey conducted by the University of Manchester, 52% of those who had
obtained condoms from their family planning clinic had one or more either burst or slip off in the 3 months before the survey. In
studies by Albert, et al., and by Wright, et al., 36% and 38% of their respondents reported condom failures respectively." (12)
CONDOM + SPERMICIDE
Some have advocated the use of spermicide containing nonoxynol-9 in the prevention of HIV infection. However, the protective effects of nonoxynol-9 have not been established in vivo for any of the viral STDs. Some reports suggest that spermicides (including nonoxynol-9) may be associated with irritation and ulceration of genital and rectal epithelia, side-effects that may actually facilitate HIV infection.
In a study with Nairobi prostitutes, a higher rate of new HIV infections was found among women using nonoxynol-9 than among those not using it. Additionally, in a study of rhesus monkeys who were exposed to a high dose of simian immunodeficiency virus following vaginally inserted nonoxynol-9 foam, half the monkeys developed an infection. (13, 14, 15, 16)
CONDOM CLIMATE CONTROL
Condoms are sensitive to heat and cold, yet they are not normally transported in climate-controlled vehicles. Vesey, in his study ofcondoms,checked 72,000 trucks and has actual photographs of eggs frying in the backs of trucks used for condom distribution.
Partly due to Vesey’s study, Burlington County, NJ, banned the distribution of condoms at the county’s AIDS counselling center, because they concluded that the risk of liability for condom failures was too great. (17)
The United States Public Health Service states that sexual relations, even with a condom, with a person who is
HIV-positive is so risky that alternative methods of expressing physical intimacy should be considered. Additionally, Public Health Services warns that the rate of HIV transmission in anal intercourse is so high that the practice should be avoided. (27)
PANACEA OR PLACEBO?
In conclusion, Herbert Ratner, M.D., offers the best summary of all when he says,
Actually, the major accomplishment of the condom campaign to prevent AIDS is to impress the promoters, politicians and the public at large that something is being done; and although well-intentioned, it offers more of a placebo than a panacea.
Publicizing the condom to the four winds is, for the most part, the bravura of a puritan who is trying to prove to the world
that he is not a puritan. To concentrate on the mechanical aspects of the sex act to the exclusion of the emotional and psychological aspects (which the condom campaign ignores) is the essence of Puritanism. The only difference between the new and the old is that whereas the traditional puritans were alleged to believe that sex was something to be isolated and repressed, neo-puritans accept sex as something to be isolated and exercised. (28)
Reviewed by Joel McIlhaney, M.D., of the Medical Institute for Sexual Health
1.Weller, Susan C., "A Meta-Analysis of Condom Effectiveness in Reducing Sexually Transmitted HIV," Social Science and
Medicine, Vol. 36, #12, June 1993, pp. 1635-1644.
2.Smith, Richard W., The Condom: Is It Really Safe Sex? (unpublished, October 1990) pp. 8-9.
3.Collart, David G., M.D., Condom Failure for Protection From Sexual Transmission of the HIV: A Review of the Medical
Literature, Feb. 16 1993.
4.Zenilman, Jonathan, et al., "Condom Use to Prevent Incident STDs: The Validity of Self-Reported Condom Use," Sexually
Transmitted Diseases, Jan.-Feb. 1995, pp.15-21;
5.Ravenel S. duBose, M.D., "Comments and Observations," Aug. 5, 1995.
6.Joel McIlhaney, Jr., M.D., "Chlamydia Trachomatis; The Most Common Bacterial Sexually Transmitted Disease in the United
States," Medical Institute for Sexual Health Sexual Health Update, Vol. 3, #3, Fall, 1995.
7.Friedman and Trivelli, "Condom Availability for Youth: A High Risk Alternative," Pediatrics, 2/97, p. 285.
8.Lytle, C. D., et al., "Filtration Sizes of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 and Surrogate Viruses Used to Test Barrier
Materials," Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 58, #2, Feb. 1992.
9."Anomalous Fatigue Behavior in Polysoprene," Rubber Chemistry and Technology, Vol. 62, #4, Sep.-Oct. 1989.
10.Collart, David G., M.D., loc. cit.
11.Nowak, Rachel, "Research Reveals Condom Conundrums," The Journal of NIH Research, Vol. 5, Jan. 1993, pp. 32, 33.
12.Collart, David G., M.D., op. cit.
13.Bird, K.D., AIDS, Vol. 5, pp. 791-796, 1991.
14.Voeller, B., AIDS, Vol. 6, pp. 341-342, 1992.
15.Kreiss, J.; Ruminjo, I.; Ngugi, E.; Roberts, P.; Ndinya-Achola, J.; and Plummer, F., 1989 V International Conference on AIDS,
16.Miller, C.J.; Alexander, N.J.; Sutjipto, S.; et al., J. Med. Primatol, Vol. 19, pp. 401-409, 1990.
17.Vesey, W.B., HLI Reports, Vol. 9, pp. 1-4, 1991.
18.April, K., and Schreiner, W., Schweiz. med. Wschr., Vol. 120, pp. 972-978, 1990.
19.Frosner, G.G., 1989, Infection, Vol. 17, pp. 1-3.
20.Fischl, M.A.; Dickinson, G.M.; Segsl, A.; Flanagan, S.; and Rodriguez, M.; Presentation THP. 92, III International Conference
AIDS in Washington D.C., 1-5 June, p. 178, 1987.
21.Klimes, I., et al., AIDS Care, Vol. 4, p. 151, 1992.
22.Detels, R.; English, P.; Visscher, B.R.; Jacobson, L.; Kingsley, L.A.; Chmiel, J.S.; Dudley, J.P.; Eldred, L.J.; and Ginzburg,
H.M.;Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, Vol. 2, pp. 77-83, 1989.
23.Gordon, R., loc. cit.
24.Joffe, G.P.; Foxman, B.; Schmidt, A.J.; Farris, K.B.; Carter, R.J.; Neumann, S.; Tolo, K.-A.; and Walters, A.M.; 1992, Sexually
Transmitted Diseases, Vol. 19, pp. 272-278.
25.Cohen, D.A.; Dent, C.; MacKinnon, D.; and Hahn, G.; Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Vol. 19, pp. 245-251, 1992.
26.Frösner, G.G., loc. cit.
27.Byer, C.O., and Shainberg, L.W., Dimensions of Human Sexuality, Wm. C. Brown Publishers, 1991.
28.Ratner, Herbert, M.D., "Condoms and AIDS," ALL About Issues, Feb. 1989, p. 36.