National Chimney Safety Week on September, 2021: Young persons rights as an employee.can an employer reduce the original agreed wage?
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The sole trader clearly does not know / care about the law.
(a modern day Fagin (Oliver musical))
Does the employer deduct tax/ national insurance?
Or does you son do his own tax return?
If its cash in hand, then you son has no rights at all. As your son is breaking the law. He must declare his income.
If you son is responsible for his own tax then you could argue he is self employed, so the rules don't apply.
He's only 16 years old! the law for children is different, the above answer is for a adult. Best to talk to citizens advice.
You son must understand his rights, do they not teach this is school anymore?
As he pays tax , Gets wages slips from his employer, then he has lots of rights.
Working on roofs is quite dangerous.
The employer must follow health & safety guidance rules.
Your son must earn minimum wage or more.
(with out a contract, we don't know what the basic wages he is getting)
Docking £100 a week is unfair, but the sole trader could argue this was a bonus in the first place.
Though I would strongly recommend learning a trade, without taking any risks, if you son is unhappy with the lack of safety on the roof. Don't take the risk, not worth it.
As I understand the rules, working on a roof, lots of safety rules. (see info via link)
If the employer does not follow the correct guidelines, you have a good case that site safety is poor and thats why you son is unhappy with the working conditions.
For an employer to dock wages if your son refuses to work in unsafe working conditions is illegal. You would have a very good case.
But the employer must say this, (Best to have in writing).
If the employer said the £100 was a bonus, You don't have a case.
Unless the wages less the £100 bonus are below the Uk minimum national wage.
If your son does not have a contract that states he has agreed to do overtime, then he cant be forced to work overtime or bank holidays.