Celebrate Exchange Day 2021 is on Saturday, March 27, 2021: Happy Valentines day to all!?
Saturday, March 27, 2021 is Celebrate Exchange Day 2021. Celebrate Day of the Dead in Oaxaca with Global Exchange Celebrate Day of the Dead in
Valentine's Day is a holiday celebrated on February 14. It is the traditional day on which lovers express their love for each other; sending Valentine's cards, or offering candy. It is very common to present flowers on Valentine's Day. The holiday is named after two among the numerous Early Christian martyrs named Valentine. The day became associated with romantic love in the circle of Geoffrey Chaucer in High Middle Ages, when the tradition of courtly love flourished.
The day is most closely associated with the mutual exchange of love notes in the form of "valentines." Modern Valentine symbols include the heart-shaped outline and the figure of the winged Cupid. Since the 19th century, handwritten notes have largely given way to mass-produced greeting cards. The mid-nineteenth century Valentine's Day trade was a harbinger of further commercialized holidays in the United States to follow. The U.S. Greeting Card Association estimates that approximately one billion valentines are sent each year worldwide, making the day the second largest card-sending holiday of the year behind Christmas. The association estimates that women purchase approximately 85 percent of all valentines.
1.1 February fertility festivals
1.2 Chaucer's love birds
1.3 Medieval and modern times
1.4 The evolving legend
2 Equivalents and in other cultures
2.1 In the West
2.1.1 In the Americas
2.2 In Asia
2.3 In the Islamic world
3 See also
4 References & Notes
5 External Links
Numerous early Christian martyrs were named Valentine. Until 1969, the Catholic Church formally recognized eleven Valentine's Days. The Valentines honored on February 14 are:
Valentine of Rome (Valentinus presb. m. Romae): a priest in Rome who suffered martyrdom about AD 269 and was buried on the Via Flaminia. His relics are at the Church of Saint Praxed in Rome. and at Whitefriar Street Carmelite Church in Dublin, Ireland.
Valentine of Terni (Valentinus ep. Interamnensis m. Romae): He became bishop of Interamna (modern Terni) about AD 197 and is said to have been killed during the persecution of Emperor Aurelian. He is also buried on the Via Flaminia, but in a different location than Valentine of Rome. His relics are at the Basilica of Saint Valentine in Terni (Basilica di San Valentino).
The Catholic Encyclopedia also speaks of a third saint named Valentine who was mentioned in early martyrologies under date of 14 February. He was martyred in Africa with a number of companions, but nothing more is known about him.
Some sources say the Valentine linked to romance is Valentine of Rome, others say Valentine of Terni. Some scholars (such as the Bollandists) have concluded that the two were originally the same person. In any case, no romantic elements are present in the original Early Medieval biographies of either of these martyrs.
An overview of attested traditions relevant to the holiday is presented below, with the legends about Valentine himself discussed in the end.
February fertility festivals
Though popular modern sources link unspecified Graeco-Roman February holidays alleged to be devoted to fertility and love to St Valentine's Day, Professor Jack Oruch of the University of Kansas argued that prior to Chaucer, no links between the Saints named Valentinus and romantic love existed. Thus whether or not in the ancient Athenian calendar, the period between mid-January and mid-February was the month of Gamelion, was dedicated to the sacred marriage of Zeus and Hera is immaterial.
In Ancient Rome, February 15 was Lupercalia, an archaic rite connected to fertility, without overtones of romance. Plutarch wrote:
Lupercalia, of which many write that it was anciently celebrated by shepherds, and has also some connection with the Arcadian Lycaea. At this time many of the noble youths and of the magistrates run up and down through the city naked, for sport and laughter striking those they meet with shaggy thongs. And many women of rank also purposely get in their way, and like children at school present their hands to be struck, believing that the pregnant will thus be helped in delivery, and the barren to pregnancy.
The word Lupercalia comes from lupus, or wolf, so the holiday may be connected with the legendary wolf that suckled Romulus and Remus. Priests of this cult, luperci would travel to the lupercal, the cave where the she-wolf who reared Romulus and Remus allegedly lived, and sacrifice animals (two goats and a dog). The blood would then be scattered in the streets, to bring fertility and keep the wolves away from the fields.  Lupercalia was a festival local to the city of Rome. The more general Festival of Juno Februa, meaning "Juno the purifier "or "the chaste Juno," was celebrated on February 13-14. Pope Gelasius I (492-496) abolished Lupercalia.
Chaucer's love birds
A portrait of English poet Geoffrey Chaucer by Thomas Hoccleve (1412). The earliest known link between Valentine's Day and romance is found in Chaucer's Parliament of FoulesThe first recorded association of Valentine's Day with romantic love is in Parlement of Foules (1382) by Geoffrey Chaucer:
For this was on seynt Volantynys day
Whan euery bryd comyth there to chese [choose] his make [mate].
This poem was written to honor the first anniversary of the engagement of King Richard II of England to Anne of Bohemia. A treaty providing for a marriage was signed on May 2, 1381. (When they were married eight months later, he was 13 or 14. She was 14.)
On the liturgical calendar, May 2 is the saints' day for Valentine of Genoa. This St. Valentine was an early bishop of Genoa who died around AD 307. Readers incorrectly assumed that Chaucer was referring to February 14 as Valentine's Day. However, mid-February is an unlikely time for birds to be mating in England.
Chaucer's Parliament of Foules is set in a fictional context of an old tradition, but in fact there was no such tradition before Chaucer. The speculative explanation of sentimental customs, posing as historical fact, had their origins among eighteenth-century antiquaries, notably Alban Butler, the author of Butler's Lives of Saints, and have been perpetuated even by respectable modern scholars. Most notably, "the idea that Valentin'e Day customed perpetuated those of the Roman Lupercalia has been accepted uncritically and repeated, in various forms, up to the present"
Medieval and modern times
Swedish calendar showing St Valentine's Day, February 14, 1712Using the language of the law courts for the rituals of courtly love, a "High Court of Love" was established in Paris on Valentine's Day in 1400. The court dealt with love contracts, betrayals, and violence against women. Judges were selected by women on the basis of a poetry reading.
The earliest surviving valentine is a fifteenth-century rondeau written by Charles, Duke of Orleans to his "valentined" wife, which commences.
Je suis desja d'amour tanné
Ma tres doulce Valentinée… (Charles d'Orléans, Rondeau VI, lines 1–2)
At the time, the duke was being held in the Tower of London following his capture at the Battle of Agincourt, 1415.
Valentine's Day is mentioned ruefully by Ophelia in Hamlet (1600-01): "Tomorrow is Saint Valentine's Day."
In 1836, relics of St. Valentine of Rome were donated by Pope Gregory XVI to the Whitefriar Street Carmelite Church in Dublin, Ireland. In the 1960s, the church was renovated and relics restored to prominence. In American culture,Saint Valentine's Day was remade in the 1840s; as a writer in GFTraham's American Monthly observed in 1849, "Saint Valentine's Day... is becoming,nay it has become, a national holyday."
In the 1969 revision of the Roman Catholic Calendar of Saints, the feastday of Saint Valentine on 14 February was removed from the General Roman Calendar and relegated to particular (local or even national) calendars for the following reason: "Though the memorial of Saint Valentine is ancient, it is left to particular calendars, since, apart from his name, nothing is known of Saint Valentine except that he was buried on the Via Flaminia on 14 February." The feast day is still celebrated in Balzan and in Malta where relics of the saint are claimed to be found, and also throughout the world by Traditionalist Catholics who follow the older, pre-Vatican II calendar.
Valentine's Day postcard, circa 1910
Tree decorated for Valentine's DayThe reinvention of Saint Valentine's Day in the 1840s has been traced by Leigh Eric Schmidt. In the United States, the first mass-produced valentines of embossed paper lace were produced and sold shortly after 1847 by Esther Howland (1828-1904) of Worcester, Massachusetts. Her father operated a large book and stationery store, and she took her inspiration from an English valentine she had received. Since 2001, the Greeting Card Association has been giving an annual "Esther Howland Award for a Greeting Card Visionary."
In the second half of the twentieth century, the practice of exchanging cards was extended to all manner of gifts in the United States, usually from a man to a woman. Such gifts typically include roses and chocolates. In the 1980s, the diamond industry began to promote Valentine's Day as an occasion for giving jewelry.
The day has come to be associated with a generic platonic greeting of "Happy Valentine's Day." As a joke, Valentine's Day is also referred to as "Singles Awareness Day."
In some North American elementary schools, students are asked to give a Valentine card or small gift
festival celebrated in west india?
Here is a detailed list of all festivals celebrated in west india
Makar Sankaranti (Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh)
It is a celebration of spring on the occasion of the 'ascent' of the sun to the north (Uttarayana). It is a day of goodwill and friendship. People exchange gifts and sweets.
Bikaner Festival (Rajasthan)
The festival starts off with a magnificent procession of bedecked camels. Camels are beautifully decorated and is a fascination for onlookers.
Id-ul-Fittr (All over India)
Celebrated at the end of Ramzan, the Muslim month of fasting. The faithful gather at the Mosque to pray. Friends and relatives meet to exchange gifts.
Mahashivratri (All over India)
On the 14th night of the dark half of magh occurs the festival of Mahashivratri, the great night of Lord Shiva. Devotees offer dishes made of fruits to lord Shiva.
Desert Festival (Jaisalmer)
The Desert Festival is a three day long extravaganza of colour, music and festivity, held at the golden city of Jaisalmer.
Goa Carnival (Goa)
For three days and nights, the legendary king Momo takes over the state and the streets come alive with colour. The week long event is a time of festivity.
Holi (All over North India)
It is the most boisterous of all Hindu festivals, observed all over the North. It heralds the end of winter and the beginning of Spring. People throw coloured water and powders at each other and make merry. Singing and dancing adds gaiety.
Is dedicated to Gauri (Goddess Parvati) and lasts 18 days. The festival is celebrated by girls and married women throughout Rajasthan.
Ramnavami (All over India)
The birthday of Lord Rama is celebrated on the ninth day of the waxing moon in the month of Chaitra
Id-ul-Zuha (All over India)
Muslim celebrated celebrated all over India with prayer offered in Mosques. Family and friends meet and delicacies are served.
Mahavir Jayanti (All over India)
The birth anniversary of the 24th tirthakarna of the Jains, Mahavir, the founder of Jainism, is celebrated by the Jain community.
Good Friday (All over India)
Is observed all over India by the Christians. This is the day when Lord Christ was crucified. The Christians offer special prayers in the Church.
Easter (All over India)
Is a festival of rejuvenation of life and living. On this day, Lord Christ rose again after his death.
Muharram (All over India)
Commemorates the martyrdom of Imam Hussain, the grandson of holy Prophet Mohammed; and is observed by Shi' ite muslims who take out processions of colourful Tazias.
Urs (Ajmer, Rajasthan)
The Urs are held every year at the dargah of the Sufi Saint Khwaja Mohinuddin Chisti. Pilgrims from all over the world gather here to pay their homage. Qawaalis (poems) are sung in the Saint's honour.
Janmashtmi (All Over India)
The birth anniversary of Lord Krishna is celebrated as Janmashtmi. It is celebrated with great fervour at Mathura and Brindavan.
Ganesh Chaturthi (Maharshtra, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka)
Ganesha Chaturthi is an important festival in India, especially in Maharashtra dedicated to Lord Ganesha.
Tarnetar Mela (Saurashtra, Gujarat)
Is an exciting and a unique fair held annually at Tarnetar in Saurashtra. The fair coincides with the festival at the Trineteshwar Temple, celebrating the wedding of the legendary Mahabharat hero, Arjuna with Draupadi.
Navratri (All over India)
Navratri is the longest Hindu festival that continues for nine consecutive nights in praise of Lord Rama.
Dussehra (All over India)
Is celebrated to mark the homecoming of the Lord Rama. The Ramlila-an enactment of the life of Lord Rama, is held nine days before Dussehra.
Sharad Purnima (All over India)
Is a harvest festival when Laxmi, the Goddess of prosperity, visits all homes to bring fortune and good luck. The newly harvested rice is offered to the gods and lamps are lit before the full moon.
Diwali (All over India)
The festival of lights is one of the most beautiful Indian festivals. It comes 21 days after Dussehra. Worship of Goddess Laxmi is carried out. Fireworks and festivities are essential part of the festival.
Pushkar Fair (Pushkar, Rajasthan)
Is held every year at Pushkar, near Ajmer. Thousands of pilgrims come to bathe in the holy water of Pushkar Lake. Learn more about Pushkar Fair
Christmas (All over India)
Is celebrated by the Christians and non-Christians alike with special enthusiasm. All the major Indian cities wear a festive look.
For more festivals visit this link
How did Valentines Day even come about?
Valentine's Day is celebrated on February 14th annually and is associated with lovers, sweethearts or people who have an attraction to another, exchanging cards and/or gifts as a symbol of their affection. However, the history behind this day did not start out as such.
Back in the time of ancient Rome, the 14th of February was seen as holiday to honour Juno, the Queen of Roman Gods and Goddesses. The following day marking what the Romans classed as the Ides of February (mid-February) a feast marked the celebration of heathen Gods in a feast called Lupercalia. It too was classed as a holiday and was a celebration that honoured the founders of Rome, twin brother Romulus and Remus and also the Gods, Luper and Faunus.
Legend has it that Romulus and Remus were supposedly suckled by wolves in a cave on the Palantine Hill in the city of Rome and the cave was called the Lupercal. The hill and cave were used as the centre of the Lupercalia ceremonies and the priests of Lupercus would perform a pagan ceremony at the cave.
The priests would dress in goatskins and sacrifice goats and a dog. They would then smear themselves with sacrificial blood prior to running around the hillside carrying a goatskin thong called a Februa (meaning: means of purification). Women from around the city who wished for fertility and easy childbirth would come and place themselves around the hill so that the priests could hit them with the Februa. It is from Februa that the name of the month of February is derived.
Along with this part of the Lupercalia, the priests would also play ‚Äòcupid' with the young men and women of the city by having the girls write down their names and place them in a box from which the young men would select a name and that woman would then be his partner for either the duration of the feast, for the year or even for life. It must be noted that the lives of young girls and boys in ancient Rome were strictly separate, hence this was a way for them to interact.
Although Lupercalia was celebrated on the 15th which the Romans classed as the middle of the month, realistically the 14th is the middle of February as the month has 28 days apart from during a Leap year.
Another slant on the origins of Valentine's Day stems from the fact that St. Valentine died on February 14th, 269 AD St. Valentine was a Roman who was martyred for refusing to give up Christianity. In 469 AD, Pope Gelasuis set aside February 14th to honour St. Valentine.
St. Valentine lived under the rule of Emperor Claudius II. The Emperor found that his army numbers were lacking due to many Roman men not wanting to leave their wives or families. As a way to thwart this, Claudius ruled that there should be no more marriages and engagements in Rome. St. Valentine used to secretly perform marriage ceremonies and when found out, he was sentenced to death by decapitation.
Over time, this date became synonymous with exchanging love notes and messages and St. Valentine became the patron saint of lovers.
So, Valentine's Day is not necessarily readily associated with love as can be seen from the pagan rituals that were a part of the feast of Lupercalia. However, the fact that a man died for his beliefs in fanning the flames of love by encouraging people to marry, gives the day a deeper meaning. I, for one, would prefer to remember this day as one on which to reflect on the life of the saint who died for believing that two people who loved each other should be allowed to marry. St. Valentine is most deservedly the patron saint of lovers.